NUTRITION: 

Strategies for Event Prep

Aerobic Endurance

 

Preparing the muscle for an aerobic endurance event should ideally begin three days before the competition. Trained athletes eating an adequate amount of carbohydrates have enough muscle glycogen stores to sustain 60 to 90 minutes of exercise. However, most athletes do not consume proper amount of carbohydrates on a daily basis and will benefit from carb loading. As mentioned, carb loading begins three days before the event. The athlete simply eats 8 to 10 g carb/kg body weight/day while reducing volume of, or refraining from, training.

 

A high-carbohydrate meal (200 to 300 g) with some protein in a 5:1 to 4:1 ratio should be consumed 2 to 4 hours before competition. This is especially important if the athlete has fasted overnight (sleeping) and may require an early wake up time to ensure proper nutrient intake prior to the event. If this pre-exercise meal is in the morning it can be difficult to decide if the extra hour of sleep or proper food intake is more important. You must be careful not to eat too much, too close to exercise, or abdominal discomfort can occur. Experimentation in the timing of pre-exercise meals may have to be done for each athlete to determine optimal feeding time as it can vary between individuals.  IF a proper meal cannot be eaten far enough in advance, the athlete must consume carbohydrate rich foods or drink throughout the event to maintain optimal intensity.

 

During endurance exercise, athletes should ingest carbohydrate supplements in small, frequent feeding versus a large amount one time. Supplements containing more than one type of carbohydrate (glucose, sucrose, fructose) maximize the body’s ability to break them down and deliver the nutrients to the muscle. Many studies have also shown combination carbohydrate and protein supplements with a 4:1 ratio are even more beneficial than carbohydrates alone by reducing muscle damage.

Recovery meal should be consumed within 30 minutes after exercise. This meal should contain 1.5 g carb/kg body weight. While carbohydrates are the most important factor in the recovery from endurance exercise, the addition of protein and fat to the post workout meal has added benefits, promoting greater glycogen and protein synthesis

 

Recommended carbohydrate consumption:   Aerobic endurance athletes

55%-65% of total caloric intake from carbohydrates

5-7g carb/kg body weight/day for athlete in training

8-10g carb/kg body weight/day for extreme training regimes

 

Recommened protein consumption: Aerobic endurance athletes

 

1.2-1.4 g/ kg body weight/ day  

Daily (8-10 g carb/kg body weight/day)

Complex carbs (low to moderate GI)

http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsweek/Glycemic_index_and_glycemic_load_for_100_foods.htm

beans, milk, yogurt, apples, fish sticks, lentils, peanuts, grapefruit, cherries, dried apricots and low fat yogurt, whole grain bread, oatmeal (not instant), sweet potatoes, bran cereal, wheat pasta, grapes, fresh apricots, peas, oranges, yams.

2-4 hours before event (4g carb/kg body weight)

Low to moderate GI carbs with some protein and fat

Oats (not instant or minute oats) with apples or raisins and nuts

Whole grain bread (made w/ whole grain flour or cracked wheat kernels) with peanut butter and/or jelly

Low GI Cereal (ex: Original Special K, All Bran) with skim milk and fruit

Sport drink – electrolytes, 6-8% carbohydrate concentration and more than one kind of sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose) is ideal, may also contain protein in a 4:1 carb to protein ratio

Avoid fructose as primary carb before and during exercise, to avoid gastrointestinal distress

30-60 min before event (1.2-1.5 g carb/kg body weight)

Sport drink/supplement – electrolytes, 6-8% carbohydrate concentration and more than one kind of sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose) is ideal, may also contain protein in a 4:1 carb to protein ratio

High GI, easily digested foods – white breads, bagel, jelly, rice, potatoes, packaged pre sport bars, corn flakes

Avoid high fiber foods to prevent gastrointestinal upset

 

During exercise (if longer than 60min)

 

1 – 2 cups every 15-20 minutes

Sport drink/supplement – electrolytes, 6-8% carbohydrate concentration and more than one kind of sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose) is ideal, may also contain protein in a 4:1 carb to protein ratio

 

Post exercise (1.5g carb/kg body weight with some protein and fat within 30 minutes)

 

Sport drink/supplement – electrolytes, 6-8% carbohydrate concentration and more than one kind of sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose) is ideal, may also contain protein in a 4:1 carb to protein ratio

High GI foods - white breads, bagel, jelly rice, potatoes, cereal, pasta, packaged pre sport bars, carrots, corn flakes

 

Fruits, Peanut butter and jelly sandwich, Hardboiled egg, Whey protein supplement

 

Strength Training

 

With all exercise you must establish and maintain a positive nitrogen balance to increase muscle mass, that is, you must take in more protein than is broken down. This is especially true in resistance training where muscle is consistently damaged and rebuild to increase strength and size. Muscle glycogen stores are also reduced during resistance training thus carbohydrates are needed to increase stamina and facilitate recovery. Because resistance training is not an endurance activity, carb loading is not necessary, just a pre workout meal containing sufficient amounts of carbohydrates.

 

The benefits of a protein and carbohydrate meal occur regardless of when you eat it, the greatest returns occur if eaten 30 to 45 minutes before exercise. The benefits of these nutrients on performance, strength, and body composition, diminish as the time between ingestion and exercise increases. Ideally, athletes should consume a pre and post workout meal, both within 30 to 45 minutes of exercise, both containing protein and carbohydrates. Current guidelines are to ingest 1.2 to 1.5 g carbs/ kg body weight with 0.3 to 0.5 g / kg body weight of whole protein or essential amino acid supplements.

 

Recommended nutrient intake: Strength Training

 

Daily

 

5-8 g carb/ kg body weight and 1.2-1.5 g protein/ kg body weight

Complex carbs (low GI), lean proteins, beans, milk, yogurt, apples, fish sticks, lentils, peanuts, grapefruit, cherries, dried apricots and low fat yogurt, whole grain bread, oatmeal (not instant), sweet potatoes, bran cereal, wheat pasta, grapes, fresh apricots, peas, oranges, yams.

Chicken, beef, skim or low fat milk, eggs

 

30-45 Min Before Exercise

 

0.3 to 0.5 g / kg body weight whole protein (ex.whey) and 1.2 to 1.5 g carbohydrate/ kg body weight combination, an essential amino acid supplement can be used instead of or in addition to the whole protein

Milk, chocolate milk, hardboiled egg, peanut butter and jelly on wheat, protein supplement and fruit smoothie, cottage cheese and fruit, jerky

 

During exercise (if longer than 60min)

 

Sport drink/supplement - 6-8% carbohydrate concentration and more than one kind of sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose) is ideal, supplements containing protein in a 4:1 carb to protein ratio may have added benefits

 

Post exercise (within 30 minutes)

 

0.3 to 0.5 g / kg body weight whole protein (ex.whey) and 1.2 to 1.5 g carbohydrate/ kg body weight combination, an essential amino acid supplement can be used instead of or in addition to the whole protein

 

Milk, chocolate milk, sport drink, bagels, fruit, whey protein

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